General Non-destructive Testing (NDT) Information
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What is NDT?
Non-destructive testing allows us to examine structures, materials or components without damaging or destroying the object being tested, and provides a means to ensure product reliability and quality. There are an assortment of NDT techniques used throughout a broad cross-section of industries. The five most widely used techniques being radiography, ultrasonics, eddy current, liquid penetrant and magnetic particle.
Across Canada and around the world, NDT technicians do thousands of inspections and tests every day to assess new product quality, equipment condition and reliability. By doing so, they help prevent failures in nuclear power, aviation, transportation, oil and gas, petrochemical plants and anywhere else where public safety or the environment could be significantly impacted. All without destroying or disassembling the item that is being inspected.
What is the Canadian Institute for Non-destructive Evaluation?
The Canadian Institute for Non-destructive Evaluation is a not-for-profit educational institute, providing training in non-destructive testing technologies. As the largest trainer and government test centre in Canada, we have been providing this service since 1976. NDT is a growth industry with excellent potential for employment and a shortage of skilled workers. Our students emerge ready to enter the workforce with specialized technical knowledge and hands-on skill.
Mission Statement: CINDE promotes and participates in the development and application of non-destructive examination in Canada and internationally through educational courses, information programs, membership, research and qualification activities.
CINDE National headquarters are located at Mohawk College in Hamilton, Ontario. The main facilities include administrative offices, fully equipped classroom and laboratories for NDT training and a fully accredited test centre for government examinations.
In addition to scheduled training programs which are open to general industry, the Institute offers an extensive in-plant training programs specifically designed to meet the clients' individual needs.
Our Membership Program includes:
Conferences & seminars which provide a forum for the correlation of advancements in NDT and industry as a whole. Chapters hold monthly meetings, combining the technical and social aspects vital to the advancement of any profession.
Education is an important facet of any profession and educational texts are available for purchase through Institute with discounts offered to CINDE members. These include programmed instruction manuals, classroom training texts and standards and specifications, including those of the Canadian General Standards Board.
Technical Information: CINDE publishes a technical journal as a vehicle for information on education, technical developments, certification and Chapter news as a service to members. This website also serves members with up-to-date information on certification news, upcoming events and an employment databank.
CINDE members belong to one of the following Chapters: Ontario, Quebec and Members at Large
What jobs are available?
Many careers in the NDT field are available across Canada and around the world. CINDE maintains an online database of employment opportunities available to members. Click here to see what jobs are currently available.
What is CGSB?
The Canadian General Standards Board is the governing body that establishes Recommended Practices for the application of NDT methods and also establishes the requirements for certification of NDE personnel. A "Standard for Certification" has been produced for NDT and outlines the theoretical training and practical experience that a person must obtain to become eligible for certification examinations in each method.
CGSB certification committees are formed of members from industry and members from related organizations. (For example, management personnel from the Canadian Institute for Non-destructive Evaluation serve on the various sub-committees.) It is industry that requires government certification in order to establish the minimum skill level requirements of NDT personnel in order to ensure quality, economy and safety throughout industry.
CINDE training meets the requirements of the Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB) training standard CAN/CGSB-48.9712. Along with the in class training which CINDE provides, you will also be required to satisfy on-the-job experience requirements in order to obtain CGSB certification. This the responsibility of the student to arrange. Certification is very important if you wish to find employment in the non-destructive testing field.
Who is the Certifying Agency?
CGSB has appointed the Department of Natural Resources Canada as the Certifying Agency in relation to NDT personnel. It is responsible for carrying out the certification requirements as established by CGSB. This involves developing and grading all the written and practical examinations carried out across Canada, ensuring that candidates meet the requirements of the applicable CGSB Standard, and providing certificates to successful candidates. Certification is renewed by application. As of January 1987, certification renewal is done in three (3) year periods with recertification required every ten years.
The Certifying Agency has approved certain Test Centres across Canada. These centres may conduct written and practical examinations by appointment.
NDT Certifying Agency
Who is the CNSC?
The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is the governing body for the use of radioactive materials in Canada. The Commission is a Federal Government Department. The Commission has designated Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) as the agency responsible for developing, administering and grading the approved examination for persons wishing to become certified "Exposure Device Operators" (EDO's) in industrial radiography. Upon successful completion of the examination, and the required practical experience, a candidate may apply to The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission for certification as an EDO. Only after being certified by the CNSC can the candidate legally operate any type of gamma exposure device in Canada.
The Exposure Device Operator examination can be written at NRCan in Ottawa, or at one of the approved test centres located across Canada.
Primary NDT Methods
Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT)
PT, although the least complex of the methods, is highly sensitive. In manual operation, it uses simple equipment to detect flaws (flaws, with some exceptions, are voids) open to the surface, and works on any material as long as it is not porous. Penetrants are petroleum- or water-based liquids coloured by a dye. Applied to the surface, the liquid seeps into the open voids. It is then removed from the surface and replaced by a white developer. The developer acts as a blotter, drawing out the penetrant trapped in voids. The penetrant stains the developer, indicating the presence and location of flaws.
Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)
MT usually requires electrical equipment to generate magnetic fields. Only metals which can be magnetized are tested by MT. The flaws do not have to be open to the surface but must be close to it. MT works best for flaws which are elongated rather than round. An internal magnetic field is generated in the tested specimen. In locations where flaws (non-magnetic voids) exist, some of the field will leak off the specimen and bridge the voids through the air. Magnetic (iron) particles, dusted over the magnetized area, are attracted by the leakage or external fields. Their buildups form a flaw indication.
Radiographic Testing (RT)
The safety hazard inherent in RT dictates a special installation. Material density and its thickness set the limits of usefulness. Internal, non-linear flaws are RT's forte; its two dimensional views sometimes its drawback. RT uses penetrating radiation and works on the principle that denser or thicker materials will absorb more of it. The specimen is placed between a source of radiation and a sheet of radiographic film. A flaw present anywhere within the specimen will absorb less radiation than the specimen itself. The flaw's presence and location will be indicated on the film by an area of higher or darker exposure.
Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
UT uses complex electronic equipment. Any material which transmits mechanical vibrations can be tested. UT detects both linear and non-linear flaws and permits three dimensional interpretation. Evaluation is often difficult. The UT instrument converts electrical pulses into mechanical vibrations or pulses. These pulses travel across the tested specimen and reflect from flaws because of their different acoustic nature. The returning reflected pulses are re-converted to electric energy and displayed as signals on a cathode ray tube (CRT). The position and size of these signals correspond to the position and size of the flaws.
Eddy Current Testing (ET)
ET instruments are small and portable. The method is used only on electrically conductive materials, and only a small area can be inspected at a time. An energized electric coil induces a magnetic field into the tested specimen. The fluctuating magnetic field generates an electric eddy current. The presence of a flaw increases the resistance to the flow of eddy currents. This is indicated by a deflection on the instrument's voltmeter.